Protein Disease Guide

This list provides an overview of major human diseases and the proteins that are crucial in their development and progression.

The proteins listed below are involved in various pathways and mechanisms that contribute to the diseases. Appropriate protein audios can be used to hinder the progression of these diseases.


Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation. Different types of cancer involve different proteins, but some common ones are listed below:

Breast Cancer

HER2 (Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2)

BRCA1 (Breast Cancer gene 1)

BRCA2 (Breast Cancer gene 2)

ER (Estrogen Receptor)

PR (Progesterone Receptor)

Lung Cancer

EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor)

KRAS (Kirsten Rat Sarcoma viral oncogene)

ALK (Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase)

TP53 (Tumor Protein p53)

Colorectal Cancer

APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli)



DCC (Deleted in Colorectal Carcinoma)

Prostate Cancer

PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin homolog)


Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high blood sugar levels. The two main types are Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, each involving different proteins:

Type 1 Diabetes

Insulin (produced by pancreatic beta cells)

GAD65 (Glutamate Decarboxylase 65)

IA-2 (Islet Antigen-2)

ZnT8 (Zinc Transporter 8)

Type 2 Diabetes


Insulin Receptor

GLUT4 (Glucose Transporter Type 4)

PPARγ (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma)

AMPK (AMP-Activated Protein Kinase)

Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular diseases encompass a range of conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels. Key proteins include:


LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein)

HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein)

ApoB (Apolipoprotein B)

CRP (C-Reactive Protein)


ACE (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme)


Angiotensin II


Heart Failure

BNP (B-type Natriuretic Peptide)

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neurodegenerative diseases involve the progressive degeneration of nerve cells. Major diseases include Alzheimer's and Parkinson's:

Alzheimer's Disease

PSEN1 (Presenilin 1)

PSEN2 (Presenilin 2)

ApoE4 (Apolipoprotein E4)

Parkinson's Disease


Parkin (E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Parkin)

LRRK2 (Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2)

DJ-1 (Protein deglycase DJ-1)

PINK1 (PTEN-Induced Kinase 1)

Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms. Major infectious diseases include:


gp120 (Envelope glycoprotein 120)

gp41 (Envelope glycoprotein 41)

p24 (Capsid protein)

Rev (Regulator of Viral Expression)


ESAT-6 (Early Secreted Antigenic Target 6 kDa)

CFP-10 (Culture Filtrate Protein 10 kDa)


CSP (Circumsporozoite Protein)

MSP1 (Merozoite Surface Protein 1)

PfEMP1 (Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1)

AMA1 (Apical Membrane Antigen 1)

Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system attacks the body's own tissues. Key diseases and associated proteins include:

Rheumatoid Arthritis

TNFα (Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha)

IL-6 (Interleukin-6)

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

Sm (Smith Antigen)

Metabolic Disorders

Metabolic disorders affect the body's ability to process certain substances. Major disorders include:


LDLR (Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor)

PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9)

ApoB (Apolipoprotein B)

HMGCR (3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Reductase)

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

PAH (Phenylalanine Hydroxylase)


As we age, age-related conditions become prevalent among the population. These issues include:

Presbyopia (Long Sightedness)

CRYAA (Alpha-crystallin A chain)

CRYAB (Alpha-crystallin B chain)

CRYBB1 (Beta-crystallin B1)

CRYBB2 (Beta-crystallin B2)

CRYGC (Gamma-crystallin C)

MIP (Major intrinsic protein, also known as Aquaporin-0)

LOXL1 (Lysyl oxidase homolog 1)