Protein Audio

There is no charge for the audio on this website. The audio files are being gifted to humanity. There is no copyright.


The audio files may be freely shared by everybody. Additionally, no patents for the proprietary software tools and methods have been, nor ever will be, applied.


To safeguard against nefarious use, the software creation tools and creation method cannot be provided. Please don't ask.


Proteins, peptides, DNA & RNA are the building blocks of life, consisting of chains of amino acids. Using audio to simulate or inhibit amino acid sequences is an innovative concept that involves converting the sequence and structures of these biological molecules into their own special signature sound.


Each amino acid within a peptide or protein sequence is assigned a unique tone based on its mono-isotopic mass. The sequence or "signature" of audio tones sends a propagation wave through the protein "backbone". Many health issues can be addressed through the use of these audios.

Joel Sternheimer wrote several patents describing the process. Irena Cosic et al developed an alternative method using RRM. The audio files provided here build on the findings of these scientists (and others) to bring protein synthesis and suppression to an exciting new level.

Right-click to download the audio files.


11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Inhibit)

This enzyme regulates the conversion of cortisone to its active form, cortisol, in fat tissues. High levels of cortisol in fat tissues have been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inhibitors of 11-beta-HSD1 have been studied for their ability to reduce visceral fat and improve insulin sensitivity.


5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-1 (Simulate)

An energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial enzyme involved in energy balance and metabolism regulation within cells. This subunit is part of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) complex, which plays an essential role in cellular energy homeostasis. The beta-1 subunit functions as a scaffold to anchor the alpha and gamma subunits and can also bind glycogen, linking the AMPK activity to glycogen metabolism.


5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-1 (Simulate)

An energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial enzyme involved in energy balance and metabolism regulation within cells. The gamma-1 subunit is one of the regulatory subunits of AMPK, playing a key role in the enzyme's activation and function.


5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-2 (Simulate)

An energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial enzyme involved in energy balance and metabolism regulation within cells. This subunit is part of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which plays a significant role in cellular energy homeostasis. The gamma-2 subunit is crucial for the regulation of AMPK activity.


5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-3 (Simulate)

An energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial enzyme involved in energy balance and metabolism regulation within cells. This subunit is part of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which plays a significant role in cellular energy homeostasis. The AMPK gamma3 subunit is a non-catalytic subunit with a regulatory role in muscle energy metabolism.


5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (serotonin 1A receptor) (Simulate)

This receptor plays a significant role in neurotransmission and is a target for various therapeutic agents, particularly in the treatment of anxiety and depression.



5HT1A (Simulate)

Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity, mood and behavior. Plays a role in the response to anxiogenic stimuli.


AB1-42 (Inhibit)

Suppressing the proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease, such as amyloid-beta (AB) and tau, has been a major focus in Alzheimer's research. Amyloid-beta accumulates to form plaques in the brain, which are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. These plaques are believed to disrupt cell communication and activate immune responses that lead to inflammation and cell death.


Actin (Simulate)

Provides structural support, involved in cell motility, division, and signaling.


Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) (Simulate)

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) is a key enzyme in fatty acid synthesis, playing critical roles in metabolism and energy homeostasis. ACC1 influences lipid metabolism, which is crucial for maintaining energy balance in cells and throughout the body. ACC1 is a target for therapeutic intervention in metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Inhibitors of ACC1 can potentially reduce fatty acid synthesis, decrease fat storage, and improve insulin sensitivity, making them interesting candidates for the treatment of these conditions. Elevated activity of ACC1 has been observed in several types of cancer, where fatty acid synthesis is often upregulated to support rapid cell growth. Targeting ACC1 in cancer cells can potentially disrupt their lipid metabolism, impacting their proliferation and survival. Modulating ACC1 activity could help in managing dyslipidemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.


Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) (Simulate)

Simultaneous inhibition of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) isozymes ACC1 and ACC2 results in concomitant inhibition of fatty acid synthesis and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and may favorably affect the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity, diabetes, and fatty liver disease.


Adenosine receptor A2a (Inhibit)

CBD's inhibition of adenosine reuptake leads to increased adenosine levels, which can have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. This interaction is relevant for its potential use in neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory conditions.


AKT1 (Inhibit)

The AKT1 protein is a key player in the PI3KAKTmTOR signaling pathway. This pathway is crucial for regulating cell survival, growth, proliferation, and metabolism. Dysregulation of AKT signaling is associated with various cancers and other diseases.


Albumin (Simulate)

Maintains osmotic pressure in the blood and serves as a carrier for various substances including hormones, vitamins, and drugs.


ALK (Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase) (Inhibit)

Neuronal receptor tyrosine kinase that is essentially and transiently expressed in specific regions of the central and peripheral nervous systems and plays an important role in the genesis and differentiation of the nervous system. Also acts as a key thinness protein involved in the resistance to weight gain: in hypothalamic neurons, controls energy expenditure acting as a negative regulator of white adipose tissue lipolysis and sympathetic tone to fine-tune energy homeostasis.


Alpha-4-beta-7 integrin (Inhibit)

Facilitates the movement of white blood cells into inflamed tissues. Inhibiting reduces gut inflammation selectively. Implicated in Crohn's disease.


Alpha-Synuclein (SNCA) (Simulate)

Parkinson's Disease. Involved in synaptic vesicle regulation aggregation leads to Lewy body formation and neuronal death.


Amylin (Islet Amyloid Polypeptide, IAPP) (Simulate)

Amylin (IAPP) is co-secreted with insulin and plays a role in regulating glucose metabolism and satiety. Both NPY and Amylin have potential roles in obesity and diabetes management.


ANDR (AR) (Inhibit)

AR is a nuclear hormone receptor that plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of male characteristics and prostate cancer progression. AR signaling is essential for prostate cancer cell growth, and therapies often target androgen deprivation to inhibit AR activity.


Antibodies (Immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 1) (Simulate)

Crucial components of the immune system, responsible for identifying and neutralizing pathogens like bacteria and viruses.


APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) (Simulate)

Tumor suppressor. Promotes rapid degradation of CTNNB1 and participates in Wnt signaling as a negative regulator. APC activity is correlated with its phosphorylation state. Activates the GEF activity of SPATA13 and ARHGEF4. Plays a role in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced cell migration. Required for MMP9 up-regulation via the JNK signaling pathway in colorectal tumor cells. Associates with both microtubules and actin filaments, components of the cytoskeleton.


APOE (Apolipoprotein E) (Inhibit)

Alzheimer's Disease. Involved in lipid metabolism - the APOE4 allele increases the risk of Alzheimer's.


Arginase-1 (Inhibit)

Inhibiting Arginase-1 activity can restore L-arginine levels, thereby enhancing the function of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. This can improve the anti-tumor immune response. Arginase-1 inhibitors can be used in combination with other therapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, to boost their efficacy. Cancer cells often have altered metabolism, and targeting metabolic enzymes like Arginase-1 can disrupt the metabolic adaptations that tumors use to survive and grow. The expression levels of Arginase-1 in tumors and immune cells can serve as a biomarker for prognosis and the effectiveness of certain therapies. High levels of Arginase-1 are often associated with poorer outcomes due to its role in immune suppression.


Aromatase (Inhibit)

Anti-aromatases (or aromatase inhibitors) are drugs that compete with aromatase, an enzyme that enables the body to continue producing estrogens by transforming androgens in post-menopausal women. Between puberty and the menopause, estrogen is largely produced by the ovaries. After menopause, the ovaries stop producing estrogen, but the body continues to make a small amount through hormones called androgens, which are produced by the adrenal glands (small glands above the kidneys). Androgens are converted into estrogens by an enzyme called aromatase. This aromatase is present in a number of body cells, including adipose cells (fat cells). Anti-aromatases prevent the action of aromatase, i.e. androgens are no longer converted into estrogens (estrogens which play a role in the growth of certain cancer cells). The estrogens have disappeared, and can therefore no longer bind to the receptors of the hormone-sensitive tumour cell to stimulate its growth. As a result, tumor cell growth is halted.


BAK (Simulate)

Pro-apoptotic protein critical for inducing cell death under stress.


BAX (Simulate)

BAX promotes apoptosis in response to cellular stress.


Bcl-2 (Inhibit)

Bcl-2 is a key regulator of apoptosis (programmed cell death) and plays a crucial role in the survival of many cell types, including cancer cells. Overexpression of Bcl-2 is often associated with resistance to apoptosis and is a hallmark of many types of cancer.


Beta-Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) (Simulate)

Disease Alzheimer's Disease. Cleavage of APP leads to the formation of beta-amyloid plaques, which are associated with neurodegeneration.


BPC-157 (Simulate)

BPC-157's function is to help with the body's regenerative process, which aids your cells in restoring the body by increasing the body's cellular production cycle. These benefits are most evident in injuries that result in muscle or tendon tears. Treats gastric ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, tendon injuries, ligament injuries, joint pain and erectile dysfunction. Also promotes wound healing, speeds up tissue regeneration, reduces inflammation, increases blood flow, relieves joint pain, boosts immune function, and improves muscle strength and endurance.


Branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDK) (Simulate)

This kinase is involved in the regulation of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, which is crucial for the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids like leucine, isoleucine, and valine. May be helpful for autism.


BRCA1 (Simulate)

BRCA1 helps repair DNA breaks and is linked to breast and ovarian cancer risks.


BRCA2 (Simulate)

BRCA2, like BRCA1, also plays a significant role in DNA repair.


Bromelaine (Fruit) (Simulate)

Derived from the fruit of pineapples. Often considered milder compared to stem bromelain. Its activity can also be influenced more by the pH and the presence of inhibitors. Often used in the culinary industry, particularly for meat tenderizing, due to its ability to break down proteins. It's also used in cosmetics and as a dietary supplement.


Bromelaine (Stem) (Simulate)

Derived from the stems of pineapples. Stem bromelain generally has a broader range of components and may contain more peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and protease inhibitors. Typically used for its strong proteolytic (protein-digesting) and milk-clotting abilities. It is effective over a wide range of pH levels, making it versatile in various industrial applications. More commonly used in the medical and supplemental fields due to its therapeutic properties. It has been studied for use in various health conditions, including inflammation, digestion, and wound healing.


Bromelain, Papain, Lysozyme and Serratiopeptidase (Simulate)

Enzymes can play a role in the natural defense against viruses, highlighting the potential of natural substances in antiviral strategies. They have the ability to break down bacterial cell walls and are thought to have antiviral effects by disrupting viral envelopes. They also have anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties.


Caspase-3 (Simulate)

Caspases are crucial for programmed cell death.


CD47 [Homo sapiens] (Inhibit)

The CD47 protein serves as a 'don't eat me' signal to ward off cancer-gobbling immune cells called macrophages. Nearly all human cancers express high levels of CD47 on their surfaces.


CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) (Simulate)

Cystic Fibrosis. Regulates ion transport across epithelial cells, mutations lead to thick mucus buildup in lungs and other organs.


Collagen Type 1 (Simulate)

Type 1 collagen is by far the most abundant protein in all vertebrates. It assembles into fibers that form the structural and mechanical scaffold (matrix) of bone, skin, tendons, cornea, blood vessel walls and other connective tissues.


Copper tri-peptide (GHK-Cu) (Simulate)

In humans, GHK-Cu is proposed to promote wound healing, attraction of immune cells, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, stimulation of collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis in skin fibroblasts and promotion of blood vessels growth. Recent studies revealed its ability to modulate expression of a large number of human genes, generally reversing gene expression to a healthier state. Binds to copper and modulates copper intake into cells.


Cytochrome c (Simulate)

Involved in the electron transport chain and energy production in mitochondria.


DCC (Simulate)

Receptor for netrin required for axon guidance. Mediates axon attraction of neuronal growth cones in the developing nervous system upon ligand binding. Its association with UNC5 proteins may trigger signaling for axon repulsion. It also acts as a dependence receptor required for apoptosis induction when not associated with netrin ligand. Implicated as a tumor suppressor gene.


Delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) (Simulate)

Primarily believed to be involved in sleep regulation due to its apparent ability to induce slow-wave sleep in rabbits. Can act as a stress limiting factor. May have a direct or indirect effect on body temperature and alleviating hypothermia. Can normalize blood pressure and myocardial contraction. It may have antioxidant effects. It has been found to have anticarcinogenic properties.


Dystrophin (Dp427m) (Simulate)

Muscular isoform of dystrophin which is predominantly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles. It is the longest and most well-studied isoform of the dystrophin protein, playing a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of muscle cells by linking the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Mutations in the gene encoding this isoform are commonly associated with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies.


EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) (Inhibit)

Though less commonly overexpressed in breast cancer compared to HER2, EGFR activation can also contribute to tumor growth and progression.


Endophilin-A3 (also known as endo-a3 and SH3GL3) (Simulate)

SH3GL3 facts as a potent tumor suppressor in lung cancer progression.. Overexpression of SH3GL3 dramatically inhibits lung cancer cells malignancy behaviors, including proliferation and migration. Additionally, SH3GL3 curbs cell cycle at G0G1 phase and induces cellular apoptosis of lung cancer cells and inhibits lung cancer stem cell self-renewal dependents on its SH3 domain. SH3GL3 inhibits lung cancer progression partially through p21 and up-regulates p21 in transcriptional level.


Enzymes (DNA Polymerase) (Simulate)

DNA replication and repair, crucial for cell division and genetic information maintenance.


ERG (Inhibit)

ERG is a transcription factor frequently involved in gene fusions (e.g., TMPRSS2-ERG) found in prostate cancer, leading to its overexpression. ERG gene fusions are considered a driver of prostate cancer development and are used as biomarkers.


Estrogen Receptor (ER) Alpha (Inhibit)

ER is critical in many breast cancers, promoting growth through the activation of various signaling pathways that lead to increased cell proliferation.


Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) (Inhibit)

FAS is an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fatty acids in the body. Inhibiting FAS can reduce the synthesis of new fatty acids, potentially reducing fat accumulation. Experimental inhibitors of FAS have shown potential in reducing body weight and improving metabolic profiles in animal models.


Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) (Simulate)

FGF21 is known for its role in metabolic regulation, including effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, and it has therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetes and obesity.


FOLH1 (PSMA) (Inhibit)

PSMA is a cell surface protein overexpressed in prostate cancer cells, used as a target for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic agents.


Forkhead Box O3  (FOXO3) (Simulate)

Forkhead Box O3 (FOXO3) is expressed in both inner and outer hair cells. FOXO3 is a transcription factora type of protein that plays a role in gene regulation. Upon noise exposure, FOXO3 travels into the hair cell nucleus, suggesting it might play a role in the protective response to noise-induced damage.


GAD65 (Glutamate Decarboxylase 65) (Inhibit)

Autoantigen, triggers autoimmune response.


Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide (GIP) (Simulate)

GIP is a hormone that plays a significant role in glucose metabolism by stimulating insulin secretion in response to food intake. It is produced by K-cells in the duodenum and small intestine. GIP is thought to improve how the body breaks down sugar. Simulating GIP can result in weight loss.


Glucagon (Simulate)

Plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes. Glucagon is a key blood-sugar-regulating hormone that can mimic the effects of exercise. As such, it can assist weight-loss.


GLUT4 (Glucose Transporter Type 4) (Simulate)

Essential for glucose uptake, reduced function contributes to disease.


Glutathione synthetase (Human) (Simulate)

Catalyzes the production of glutathione from gamma-glutamylcysteine and glycine in an ATP-dependent manner. Glutathione (gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine, GSH) is the most abundant intracellular thiol in living aerobic cells and is required for numerous processes including the protection of cells against oxidative damage, amino acid transport, the detoxification of foreign compounds, the maintenance of protein sulfhydryl groups in a reduced state and acts as a cofactor for a number of enzymes.


Hepcidin (Simulate)

Liver-produced hormone that constitutes the main circulating regulator of iron absorption and distribution across tissues. Acts by promoting endocytosis and degradation of ferroportin/SLC40A1, leading to the retention of iron in iron-exporting cells and decreased flow of iron into plasma. Controls the major flows of iron into plasma: absorption of dietary iron in the intestine, recycling of iron by macrophages, which phagocytose old erythrocytes and other cells, and mobilization of stored iron from hepatocytes. Has strong antimicrobial activity against E.coli ML35P N.cinerea and weaker against S.epidermidis, S.aureus and group b streptococcus bacteria. Active against the fungus C.albicans. No activity against P.aeruginosa.


HER2 neu (Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2) (Inhibit)

HER2 is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and is overexpressed in about 20 of breast cancers, leading to increased cell growth and survival.


HTT (Huntingtin Protein) (Simulate)

Huntington's Disease. Involved in neuronal function mutant HTT leads to neurodegenerative symptoms.


Human lysozyme (also known as lysozyme C) (Simulate)

The most significant uses of lysozyme in health supplements derives from its unique properties. Additional benefits include bladder health support, healthy inflammation management and support for wound repair.


IA-2 (Islet Antigen-2) (Inhibit)

Autoantigen, triggers autoimmune response


IKBA (an NF-kB inhibitor) (Simulate)

Inhibiting NF-kB can reduce inflammation and cancer risk.


Insulin (Simulate)

Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.


Insulin Receptor (Simulate)

Essential for insulin action, resistance contributes to disease.


Interleukin-12 (IL12B) (Inhibit)

Cytokine involved in immune and inflammatory responses. By inhibiting the pathways, it can reduce inflammation and the immune response that contributes to Crohn's disease.


Interleukin-23 (IL23A) (Inhibit)

Cytokine involved in immune and inflammatory responses. By inhibiting the pathways, it can reduce inflammation and the immune response that contributes to Crohn's disease.


ITA4 (Inhibit)

Facilitate the movement of white blood cells into inflamed tissues, affecting migration to both the gut and brain. Implicated in Crohn's disease.


Janus Kinase (JAK1) (Inhibit)

Enzyme that plays a critical role in the signaling of several cytokines. Inhibiting JAK can interfere with the cytokine signaling pathway that leads to inflammation.


KI67 (Inhibit)

Ki-67 is a nuclear protein associated with cellular proliferation, commonly used as a marker to assess the growth fraction of cells in prostate cancer. High levels of Ki-67 are indicative of aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis.


KLK3 (PSA) (Inhibit)

PSA is a serine protease produced by the prostate gland, commonly used as a biomarker for prostate cancer screening.


Klotho alpha (Klotho) (Simulate)

This protein is crucial for its roles in aging, phosphate metabolism, and as a co-receptor for fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23).


Klotho beta protein (beta-Klotho) (Simulate)

Beta-Klotho is involved in various biological processes and acts as a coreceptor for endocrine FGFs (fibroblast growth factors), playing a significant role in the regulation of metabolism and other physiological functions.


KRAS (Inhibit)

Plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation. Plays a role in promoting oncogenic events by inducing transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in a ZNF304-dependent manner.


Lactoferrin (Simulate)

Major iron-binding and multifunctional protein found in exocrine fluids such as breast milk and mucosal secretions. Has antimicrobial activity, which depends on the extracellular cation concentration. Antimicrobial properties include bacteriostasis, which is related to its ability to sequester free iron and thus inhibit microbial growth, as well as direct bactericidal properties leading to the release of lipopolysaccharides from the bacterial outer membrane. Can also prevent bacterial biofilm development in P.aeruginosa infection. Has weak antifungal activity against C.albicans. Has anabolic, differentiating and anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts and can also inhibit osteoclastogenesis, possibly playing a role in the regulation of bone growth. Promotes binding of species C adenoviruses to epithelial cells, promoting adenovirus infection. Can inhibit papillomavirus infections. Stimulates the TLR4 signaling pathway leading to NF-kappa-B activation and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production while also interfering with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated TLR4 signaling. Inhibits neutrophil granulocyte migration to sites of apoptosis, when secreted by apoptotic cells. Stimulates VEGFA-mediated endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Binds heparin, chondroitin sulfate and possibly other glycosaminoglycans. Also binds specifically to pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), the lipid A portion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lysozyme and DNA.


Mitochondrial-derived peptide (MOTS-c) (Simulate)

Regulates insulin sensitivity and metabolic homeostasis. Inhibits the folate cycle, thereby reducing de novo purine biosynthesis which leads to the activation of the metabolic regulator 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Increases mitochondrial respiration and levels of CPT1A and cytokines IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL10 and TNF in senescent cells.


MLH1 (Simulate)

MLH1 works in conjunction with MSH2 to correct DNA replication errors.


MSH2 (Simulate)

Part of the DNA mismatch repair pathway.


mTOR (Mammalian Target of Rapamycin) (Inhibit)

mTOR is a key kinase that regulates cell growth, proliferation, and survival. mTOR inhibitors like everolimus are used in combination with hormone therapy in certain types of breast cancer.


Myc proto-oncogene protein (Inhibit)

Myc is encoded by a type of gene known as an oncogene. Oncogenes normally perform vital cellular functions, but when mutated or expressed incorrectly they become powerful cancer promoters. The Myc oncogene is mutated or misregulated in over half of all human cancers. Blocking the expression of the Myc gene causes the complete regression of tumors in animals.


Myeloperoxidase (MPO) (Inhibit)

MPO plays a role in innate microbial defenses by catalyzing the formation of powerful reactive oxygen intermediates, which are potent antimicrobial tools against phagocytosed pathogens. MPO is considered an important part of the innate immune system's microbicidal arm and is secreted by neutrophils and macrophages. Interestingly, this enzyme has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases including atherosclerosis. MPO is ubiquitous in atherosclerotic lesions and contributes to the initiation and progression of the disease primarily by oxidizing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles.


Myosin (Simulate)

Motor protein involved in muscle contraction and movement within cells.


Myostatin (Inhibit)

Also known as growth differentiation factor 8, myostatin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MSTN gene Myostatin is a myokine that is produced and released by myocytes and acts to down-regulate muscle growth. Animals either lacking myostatin or treated with substances that block the activity of myostatin have significantly more muscle mass.


NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 1 (Simulate)

Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.


NANOG Homeobox protein (Simulate)

transcription factor that plays a crucial role in maintaining the pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. NANOG is critical in maintaining the pluripotent state of cells within the inner cell mass of the embryo, which can differentiate into any cell type of the body. It works in conjunction with other transcription factors, such as OCT4 and SOX2, forming a regulatory network that keeps cells in an undifferentiated state. Understanding and manipulating NANOG's function can have implications for regenerative medicine, including tissue repair and the generation of cells and tissues for transplantation. Aberrant expression of NANOG has been observed in various cancers, where it is thought to contribute to tumor progression and resistance to therapy by promoting characteristics associated with stem cells, such as rapid growth and resistance to cell death. High levels of NANOG in tumors are often linked to poor prognosis, as it can promote the proliferation, survival, and migration of cancer cells.


Nisin (Lantibiotic nisin-A) (Simulate)

Lanthionine-containing peptide antibiotic (lantibiotic) active on Gram-positive bacteria. The bactericidal activity of lantibiotics is based on depolarization of energized bacterial cytoplasmic membranes, initiated by the formation of aqueous transmembrane pores. Nisin is primarily used as a food preservative due to its ability to inhibit the growth of certain bacteria in a variety of food products. It is effective against Gram-positive bacteria and is commonly added to processed cheese, canned foods, meats, and dairy products to extend shelf life and reduce the need for harsher chemical preservatives.


Nuclear pore glycoprotein p62 (Sequestosome-1 or SQSTM1) (Inhibit)

p62 has a ubiquitin binding domain, which can associate with ubiquitin-modified proteins and shuttle them to the autophagosomal or proteasomal pathways for degradation.  In the case of neurodegenerative conditions, mutations or post-translational alterations lead to protein misfolding. When these misfolded proteins evade degradation, they are then processed into small-misfolded oligomers, at which point they become toxic to the neuronal environment. Examples of these include a-synuclein, -amyloid, and poly-Qproteins, oligomers known for their pathological roles in Parkinsons, Alzheimers, and Huntingtons diseases, respectively. The toxic oligomeric aggregates are primarily cleared via macroautophagy. Therefore, one of the attractive therapeutic strategies to treat proteinopathies, including those found in neurodegenerative diseases, is to induce the removal of toxic oligomeric molecules by promoting macroautophagy and the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS).


Neuropeptide Y (NPY) (Inhibit)

NPY is a peptide that stimulates food intake and decreases energy expenditure when activated in the brain. It is involved in regulating appetite and energy balance. Inhibiting NPY receptors could reduce appetite and potentially lead to weight loss.


p21 (Simulate)

p21 is a crucial tumor suppressor gene. Also known as Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), it plays a crucial role in regulating the cell cycle.


p53 (TP53) (Simulate)

p53 can activate DNA repair proteins, induce apoptosis, and halt the growth of cells with damaged DNA.


Papain (PAPA1_CARPA) (Simulate)

Papain is a proteolytic enzyme derived from the papaya fruit. It has several health benefits, particularly in aiding digestion by breaking down proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids, which improves nutrient absorption. Additionally, papain has anti-inflammatory properties that can help reduce swelling and pain associated with inflammation. It's also being researched for its potential anti-parasitic effects, where it might disrupt the life cycles of certain parasites by degrading their protein structures.


Parkin (PRKN) (Simulate)

Parkinson's Disease. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in the clearance of damaged mitochondria mutations can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration.


PD-L1 (also known as CD274 or B7-H1) (Inhibit)

Human Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1), also known as CD274 or B7-H1PD-L1 serves as a 'don't eat me' signal to ward off cancer-gobbling immune cells called macrophages, allowing cancer to grow unchallenged by our immune system.


Peroxidase (Simulate)

Removal of H2O2, oxidation of toxic reductants, biosynthesis and degradation of lignin, suberization, auxin catabolism, response to environmental stresses such as wounding, pathogen attack and oxidative stress.


PI3K catalytic subunit p110 (Inhibit)

Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival, and intracellular trafficking. There are several isoforms of PI3K, but the most studied isoform in the context of cancer and cellular signaling is the catalytic subunit p110a, encoded by the PIK3CA gene.


Plasmin (Simulate)

Plasmin is a serine protease involved in the breakdown of fibrin in blood clots, a process known as fibrinolysis.


Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) (Simulate)

PRG4 is involved in lubrication and protection of mucosal surfaces. Since it is found to be altered in Sjogren's patients, the focus would likely be on restoring or enhancing its function rather than inhibiting it. Enhancing PRG4 levels could improve symptoms related to dryness.


PPARG (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma) (Simulate)

CBD activates PPAR receptors, which play a role in the regulation of lipid uptake, insulin sensitivity, and anti-inflammatory effects. Activation of PPAR by CBD may have implications for the treatment of metabolic disorders and inflammation.


Progerin (Inhibit)

Progerin, the protein responsible for the Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), is a partially deleted form of nuclear lamin A, and its expression has been suggested as a cause for dysfunctional nuclear membrane and premature senescence.


Progesterone Receptor (PR) (Inhibit)

Similar to ER, PR influences the growth of breast cancer cells by interacting with specific DNA regions to activate growth-promoting genes.


Proprotein Convertase SubtilisinKexin Type 9 (PCSK9) (Inhibit)

PCSK9 is involved in cholesterol homeostasis. It binds to LDL receptors and targets them for degradation, thus controlling the levels of LDL cholesterol. PCSK9 is a key therapeutic target in cholesterol management, with inhibitors being used to treat hypercholesterolemia.


PTEN-L (Simulate)

PTEN-L is the long version of PTEN, one of the most frequently inactivated tumor suppressor genes in cancer. Loss or variation in PTEN gene/protein levels is commonly observed in a broad spectrum of human cancers, while germline PTEN mutations cause inherited syndromes that lead to increased risk of tumors.


Q9UHK6 (AMACR) (Inhibit)

AMACR is an enzyme involved in fatty acid metabolism, frequently overexpressed in prostate cancer. Used as a biomarker in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, particularly in biopsy samples.


Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) (Simulate)

Rb regulates the cell cycle and prevents excessive cell growth.


Serratiopeptidase (Simulate)

This enzyme, isolated from a Serratia strain presents in the gut of silkworms, is used as a food supplement because it is reported to induce fibrinolytic, anti-inflammatory and anti-edemic (prevents swelling and fluid retention) activity in a number of tissues.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (2019-nCoV) (SARS-CoV-2) (Inhibit)

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus involved in Covid 19 disease. Attaches the virion to the cell membrane by interacting with host receptor, initiating the infection. The major receptor is host ACE2


Smad3 (Simulate)

Smad proteins can suppress tumor formation.


Somatotropin aka. Human Growth Hormone (Simulate)

Plays an important role in growth control. Its major role in stimulating body growth is to stimulate the liver and other tissues to secrete IGF-1. It stimulates both the differentiation and proliferation of myoblasts. It also stimulates amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in muscle and other tissues.


Spike glycoprotein (Inhibit)

Main component of the anti-COVID19 vaccines BNT162b2/Pfizer-Biontech and mRNA-1273/Moderna; in which the mutations of Lys-986 (K986P) and Val-987 (V987P) have been added to stabilize the protein in the prefusion state. Main component of the anti-COVID19 vaccine Ad26.COV2.S/Janssen Pharmaceutical; in which the mutations Arg-682 (R682S), Arg-685 (R685G), Lys-986 (K986P) and Val-987 (V987P) have been added to stabilize the protein in the prefusion state.  Main component of the anti-COVID vaccine Chadox1/AZD1222/AstraZeneca; in which the human tPA leader sequence is added in N-terminus to enhance protein secretion.


Subtilisin (Nattokinase) (Simulate)

Nattokinase is serine protease of the subtilisin family. When in contact with human blood or blood clots, it exhibits a strong fibrinolytic activity and works by inactivating plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.


Superoxidase dismutase SOD 1 (Simulate)

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme produced by the cells of living organisms, animals and plants. Its function is to trap free radicals produced by metabolism. Superoxide dismutase is a powerful antioxidant. Three forms of SOD coexist in humans. There are two types of CuZn-SOD. The first type (SOD1) is a dimeric protein found in the cytoplasm and mitochondrial intermembrane space. The second type of CuZn-SOD (SOD3) is a tetrameric extracellular tetrameric protein. This protein has the ability to bind to the surface of cell membranes or in type I collagen, protecting cells from exogenous oxidative stress. Mn-SOD (SOD2) is located in the mitochondrial matrix, but also on the inner wall of mitochondriamitochondria, protecting them from oxidative stress generated by the entire chain involved in cellular respiration. The genes corresponding to SOD1-3 are located on chromosomes 21, 6 and 4 respectively.


Superoxidase dismutase SOD 2 (Simulate)

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme produced by the cells of living organisms, animals and plants. Its function is to trap free radicals produced by metabolism. Superoxide dismutase is a powerful antioxidant. Three forms of SOD coexist in humans. There are two types of CuZn-SOD. The first type (SOD1) is a dimeric protein found in the cytoplasm and mitochondrial intermembrane space. The second type of CuZn-SOD (SOD3) is a tetrameric extracellular tetrameric protein. This protein has the ability to bind to the surface of cell membranes or in type I collagen, protecting cells from exogenous oxidative stress. Mn-SOD (SOD2) is located in the mitochondrial matrix, but also on the inner wall of mitochondriamitochondria, protecting them from oxidative stress generated by the entire chain involved in cellular respiration. The genes corresponding to SOD1-3 are located on chromosomes 21, 6 and 4 respectively.


Superoxidase dismutase SOD 3 (Simulate)

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme produced by the cells of living organisms, animals and plants. Its function is to trap free radicals produced by metabolism. Superoxide dismutase is a powerful antioxidant. Three forms of SOD coexist in humans. There are two types of CuZn-SOD.The first type (SOD1) is a dimeric protein found in the cytoplasm and mitochondrial intermembrane space. The second type of CuZn-SOD (SOD3) is a tetrameric extracellulartetrameric protein. This protein has the ability to bind to the surface of cell membranes or in type I collagen, protecting cells from exogenous oxidative stress. Mn-SOD (SOD2) is located in the mitochondrial matrix, but also on the inner wall of mitochondriamitochondria, protecting them from oxidative stress generated by the entire chain involved in cellular respiration. The genes corresponding to SOD1-3 are located on chromosomes 21, 6 and 4 respectively.


Tau (Inhibit)

Suppressing the proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease, such as amyloid-beta (AB) and tau, has been a major focus in Alzheimer's research. Tau protein abnormalities lead to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles inside neurons, contributing to the disruption of neuronal function and cell death.


TB4 (TB-500 or Thymosin beta 4) (Simulate)

TB-500 may promote blood vessel formation, tissue repair, and cell healing. It can stimulate the migration of endothelial cell, potentially leading to the formation of new blood vessels. TB-500 has the potential to prevent cell damage and promote cell healing in various tissues.


Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) (Inhibit)

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme essential for the replication of chromosome termini in most eukaryotes. Active in progenitor and cancer cells. Inactive, or very low activity, in normal somatic cells. TERT activity is tightly regulated. In most somatic cells, telomerase activity is low or absent, leading to gradual telomere shortening and cellular aging. In contrast, many cancer cells reactivate telomerase, allowing them to proliferate indefinitely.TERT is the catalytic subunit of the telomerase enzyme complex. It adds repetitive nucleotide sequences to the ends of telomeres, compensating for the loss of DNA sequences that occurs during DNA replication. This function is essential for maintaining chromosomal stability and cellular lifespan. Because of its role in cellular immortality, TERT is a potential target for anti-cancer therapies. Telomerase inhibitors are being explored as possible treatments to limit the growth of cancer cells.


Thrombospondin-1 (Simulate)

Thrombospondin-1 can inhibit the formation of new blood vessels necessary for tumor growth.


TP53 (Simulate)

TP53, a crucial tumor suppressor gene, is the most commonly mutated gene in human cancers.


TRPV1 (Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1) (Simulate)

CBD binds to TRPV1 receptors, which are involved in the regulation of pain, inflammation, and body temperature.


Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-a) (Inhibit)

A cytokine that plays a key role in inflammation, reducing inflammation in the intestinal tract.


TYB4 (Thymosin Beta-4) (Simulate)

Thymosin Beta-4 (T4 or TYB4) is a peptide that has various therapeutic applications. such as wound healing, tissue repair and accelerated healing. Thymosin Beta-4 has been shown to accelerate the healing of wounds, including skin, corneal, and internal injuries. It promotes cell migration, angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels), and collagen deposition, which are crucial for tissue repair. T4 can reduce inflammation at the site of injury, further aiding in the healing process. Thymosin Beta-4 has potential therapeutic applications in repairing heart tissue following myocardial infarction (heart attack). It can enhance the survival and migration of cardiac progenitor cells, thus contributing to heart tissue regeneration. T4 is used in the treatment of corneal injuries and diseases, helping to heal corneal abrasions and reduce scarring. Neurological Protection and Neuroprotective Effects Research suggests that Thymosin Beta-4 may have neuroprotective properties, making it a candidate for treating neurodegenerative diseases and injuries to the nervous system. Reduction of Fibrosis T4 can inhibit the formation of scar tissue (fibrosis) in organs such as the liver, lungs, and kidneys, which is beneficial in conditions where excessive fibrosis is a problem. Preliminary studies have indicated that Thymosin Beta-4 might promote hair growth and be useful in treating conditions like alopecia (hair loss).


USAG-1 Sclerostin domain-containing protein 1 precursor [Homo sapiens] (Inhibit)

Sclerostin is a small protein expressed by the SOST gene in osteocytes, bone cells that respond to mechanical stress applied to the skeleton and appear to play an important role in the regulation of bone remodeling. Inhibiting this protein may regrow teeth.


Utrophin (UTRN) (Simulate)

This protein is structurally and functionally related to dystrophin, a protein involved in maintaining the integrity of muscle fibers. Utrophin plays a compensatory role in the muscle fibers of individuals affected by muscular dystrophy, especially where dystrophin is deficient.


ZnT8 (Inhibit)

Autoantigen, triggers autoimmune response


PPAR (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma) (Simulate)

Regulates glucose metabolism, beneficial.


AMPK (AMP-Activated Protein Kinase) (Simulate)

Regulates energy balance, beneficial.


LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) (Inhibit)

High levels contribute to disease.


HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) (Simulate)

Protective against disease.


ApoB (Apolipoprotein B) (Inhibit)

High levels contribute to disease.


CRP (C-Reactive Protein) (Inhibit)

Displays several functions associated with host defense: it promotes agglutination, bacterial capsular swelling, phagocytosis and complement fixation through its calcium-dependent binding to phosphorylcholine. Can interact with DNA and histones and may scavenge nuclear material released from damaged circulating cells.


ACE (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme) (Inhibit)

Promotes vasoconstriction, high levels contribute to disease. Displays several functions associated with host defense: it promotes agglutination, bacterial capsular swelling, phagocytosis and complement fixation through its calcium-dependent binding to phosphorylcholine. Can interact with DNA and histones and may scavenge nuclear material released from damaged circulating cells.


Renin (Inhibit)

Renin is a highly specific endopeptidase, whose only known function is to generate angiotensin I from angiotensinogen in the plasma, initiating a cascade of reactions that produce an elevation of blood pressure and increased sodium retention by the kidney. Regulates blood pressure, high levels contribute to disease.


Angiotensin II (Inhibit)

Acts directly on vascular smooth muscle as a potent vasoconstrictor, affects cardiac contractility and heart rate through its action on the sympathetic nervous system, and alters renal sodium and water absorption through its ability to stimulate the zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete aldosterone. Promotes vasoconstriction, high levels contribute to disease.


Aldosterone (Inhibit)

Promotes sodium retention, high levels contribute to disease.


BNP (B-type Natriuretic Peptide) (Simulate)

Hormone that plays a key role in mediating cardio-renal homeostasis, and is involved in vascular remodeling and regulating energy metabolism. High levels indicate disease but also protective.


PSEN1 (Presenilin 1) (Inhibit)

Catalytic subunit of the gamma-secretase complex, an endoprotease complex that catalyzes the intramembrane cleavage of integral membrane proteins such as Notch receptors and APP (amyloid-beta precursor protein). Mutations contribute to disease.


PSEN2 (Presenilin 2) (Inhibit)

Probable catalytic subunit of the gamma-secretase complex, an endoprotease complex that catalyzes the intramembrane cleavage of integral membrane proteins such as Notch receptors and APP (amyloid-beta precursor protein). Requires the other members of the gamma-secretase complex to have a protease activity. May play a role in intracellular signaling and gene expression or in linking chromatin to the nuclear membrane. May function in the cytoplasmic partitioning of proteins. The holoprotein functions as a calcium-leak channel that allows the passive movement of calcium from endoplasmic reticulum to cytosol and is involved in calcium homeostasis. Mutations contribute to disease.


a-Synuclein (Inhibit)

Aggregates form Lewy bodies.


LRRK2 (Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2) (Inhibit)

Serine/threonine-protein kinase which phosphorylates a broad range of proteins involved in multiple processes such as neuronal plasticity, innate immunity, autophagy, and vesicle trafficking.


DJ-1 (Protein deglycase DJ-1) (Simulate)

Multifunctional protein with controversial molecular function which plays an important role in cell protection against oxidative stress and cell death acting as oxidative stress sensor and redox-sensitive chaperone and protease.


PINK1 (PTEN-Induced Kinase 1) (Simulate)

Serine/threonine-protein kinase which protects against mitochondrial dysfunction during cellular stress by phosphorylating mitochondrial proteins such as PRKN and DNM1L, to coordinate mitochondrial quality control mechanisms that remove and replace dysfunctional mitochondrial components.


gp120 (Envelope glycoprotein 120) (Inhibit)

Enables virus entry into cells.


gp41 (Envelope glycoprotein 41) (Inhibit)

Enables virus entry into cells.


p24 (Capsid protein) (Inhibit)

Structural component of virus.


Rev (Regulator of Viral Expression) (Inhibit)

Regulates viral mRNA export. Escorts unspliced or incompletely spliced viral pre-mRNAs (late transcripts) out of the nucleus of infected cells. These pre-mRNAs carry a recognition sequence called Rev responsive element (RRE) located in the env gene, that is not present in fully spliced viral mRNAs (early transcripts). This function is essential since most viral proteins are translated from unspliced or partially spliced pre-mRNAs which cannot exit the nucleus by the pathway used by fully processed cellular mRNAs. Rev itself is translated from a fully spliced mRNA that readily exits the nucleus. Rev's nuclear localization signal (NLS) binds directly to KPNB1/Importin beta-1 without previous binding to KPNA1/Importin alpha-1.


ESAT-6 (Early Secreted Antigenic Target 6 kDa) (Inhibit)

Virulence factor.


CFP-10 (Culture Filtrate Protein 10 kDa) (Inhibit)

Virulence factor.


CSP (Circumsporozoite Protein) (Inhibit)

Important for liver infection.


MSP1 (Merozoite Surface Protein 1) (Inhibit)

Important for red blood cell invasion.


PfEMP1 (Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1) (Inhibit)

Promising transmission-blocking vaccine candidate: targeting the protein would prevent transmission of the parasite decreasing the malaria burden. Gametocyte surface protein required for male fertility.


AMA1 (Apical Membrane Antigen 1) (Inhibit)

Important for cell invasion.


IL-6 (Interleukin-6) (Inhibit)

Promotes inflammation. IL6 is a potent inducer of the acute phase response. Rapid production of IL6 contributes to host defense during infection and tissue injury, but excessive IL6 synthesis is involved in disease pathology. In the innate immune response, is synthesized by myeloid cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, upon recognition of pathogens through toll-like receptors (TLRs) at the site of infection or tissue injury (Probable). In the adaptive immune response, is required for the differentiation of B cells into immunoglobulin-secreting cells. Plays a major role in the differentiation of CD4+ T cell subsets. Essential factor for the development of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells that are required for the induction of germinal-center formation. Required to drive naive CD4+ T cells to the Th17 lineage. Also required for proliferation of myeloma cells and the survival of plasmablast cells


Sm (Smith Antigen) (Inhibit)

Autoantigen, promotes inflammation.


LDLR (Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor) (Simulate)

Removes LDL from blood.


PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase SubtilisinKexin Type 9) (Inhibit)

Degrades LDL receptors.


HMGCR (3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Reductase) (Simulate)

Catalyzes the conversion of (3S)-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) to mevalonic acid, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of cholesterol and other isoprenoids, thus plays a critical role in cellular cholesterol homeostasis.


PAH (Phenylalanine Hydroxylase) (Simulate)

Deficiency causes disease.


TNFa (Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha) (Inhibit)

Promotes inflammation.


CRYAA (Alpha-crystallin A chain) (Simulate)

Contributes to the transparency and refractive index of the eye lens. Acts as a molecular chaperone to prevent aggregation of lens proteins, maintaining lens transparency and flexibility.


CRYAB (Alpha-crystallin B chain) (Simulate)

Functions similarly to CRYAA, preventing protein aggregation and maintaining eye lens clarity.


CRYBB1 (Beta-crystallin B1) (Simulate)

Structural protein of the eye lens, essential for maintaining lens transparency and refractive properties.


CRYBB2 (Beta-crystallin B2) (Simulate)

Structural protein of the eye lens, essential for maintaining lens transparency and refractive properties.


CRYGC (Gamma-crystallin C) (Simulate)

Important for maintaining eye lens transparency and preventing cataract formation.


MIP (Major intrinsic protein, also known as Aquaporin-0) (Simulate)

Facilitates water transport in the eye lens, maintaining its transparency and proper hydration.


LOXL1 (Lysyl oxidase homolog 1) (Simulate)

Involved in the formation and maintenance of elastic fibers in the eye lens, contributing to its elasticity and accommodation ability.


Nagalase ( alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase) (Inhibit)

Nagalase is an extracellular matrix-degrading enzyme that is (increased) secreted by cancerous cells in the process of tumor invasion. It also is an intrisic component of the envelope protein of various virions, such as HIV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes zoster and the influenza virus. Thus, it is also secreted from virus-infected cells.. Ref:1,3,4,10  Nagalase deglycosylates the vitamin D3-binding protein DBP (in humans better known as Gc-protein). Gc-protein is the precursor for the major macrophage-activating factor (MAF). Gc-protein carries one trisaccharide consisting of N-acetylgalactosamine with dibranched galactose and sialic acid termini. By deglycosylation, the (complete) trisaccharide is removed from the Gc-protein. This glycosylated Gc-protein can no longer be converted to MAF.  Normally MAF is produced from the Gc-protein by sequential removal of the galactose and sialic acid termini by beta-galactosidase and sialidase, selectively, with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar. Macrophage-activation for phagocytosis and antigen presentation is the first step in the immune development cascade. Lost precursor activity leads to immunosuppression.


GCMAF - VTDB_HUMAN Vitamin D-binding protein (Simulate)

Involved in vitamin D transport and storage, scavenging of extracellular G-actin, enhancement of the chemotactic activity of C5 alpha for neutrophils in inflammation and macrophage activation.








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